„Informația este valuta democrației.” – Thomas Jefferson


*  ACLU’s Cyber Liberties Page
„Cyberspace must be free!”
*  Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT)
a non-profit public interest organization based in Washington with a mission to develop and advocate public policies that advance constitutional civil liberties and democratic values in new computer and communications technologies.
*  Chilling Effects Clearinghouse
Chilling Effects aims to help you understand the protections that the First Amendment and intellectual property laws give to your online activities.
*  Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
An excellent (IMO) non-profit, public interest organization originally concerned with the ethics and effects of computers on society, with an increasing focus on aspects of cyberlaw and electronic civil liberties. See also:
*  Computers and Academic Freedom (CAF)
Addresses questions surrounding the role of computers and networking at academic institutions, including such issues as should universities ban materials (e.g., from netnews facilities, email, libraries and student publications) that some find offensive. Be sure to check out their FAQ.
publishes documents that are prohibited by governments worldwide, in particular material on freedom of expression, privacy, cryptology, dual-use technologies, national security and intelligence — open, secret and classified documents — but not limited to those.
*  Crypto
„Security for Human Rights & Human Rights for Cryptographers.”
*  Cyber-Rights
A CPSR working group promoting a Declaration of Rights in Cyberspace and the survival of democracy in the Information Age.
See also their list of interesting Web Sites
*  Cypherpunks
See also: Our local cypherpunk page
*  Digital Future Coalition
Act now to oppose the many extraneous provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act
*  The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
A non-profit civil liberties public interest organization working to protect freedom of expression, privacy, and access to online resources and information.

Some highlight of their excellent site:
*  Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)
A public interest research center established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values.
An International Survey of Encryption Policy
*  Encryption Policy Resource Page
Encryption technology is the key to the future of the information revolution. It allows businesses and individuals to communicate securely over any inexpensive communication platform without fear of eavesdropping.
*  Free Software
The Free Software Foundation (FSF)
Creators and supporters of the GNU Project
GNU/Linux resource page (by CoMedia)
The various free Linux and *BSD operating system software distributions allow you to get the most out of your hardware while not contributing to (and becoming a slave to) the large software monopoly, Microsoft.
Not necessarily free, but the source code is available which still enables better/easier integration than closed source (e.g., Microsoft)                                                                               Approved Open Source licenses
The Cathedral and the Bazaar
by Eric Raymond
*  The Global Internet Liberty Campaign (GILC)
An international survey of privacy laws and practice
*  ICANN Watch
a collaborative effort to keep an eye on the activities of ICANN, perhaps the most powerful force on the Internet
*  League for Programming Freedom (LPF)
Internet Patent News Service
a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting effective grassroots citizen action campaigns by creating coalitions that link online activists with grassroots organizations, providing training in effective Internet organizing and advocacy, and educating the public, policymakers and the media about technology-based social and political issues.
NetAction Internet Resources
The Virtual Activist – A Training Course
*  NetCaucus
the Congressional Internet Caucus Advisory Committee


*  BioGems
The BioGems initiative is aimed at saving wildlands of exceptional natural values.
*  Bioneers
„To cultivate and disseminate environmental solutions to national and global audiences, educating, inspiring and equipping people toward effective action.”
*  California League of Conservation Voters (CLCV)
I’ve been a member since 1984…
Check out their Environmental Scorecard
„The Greenpeace Clean Energy Now! campaign is committed to forcing the increase of clean energy solutions required to meet the challenges of climate change.”
*  Earth First! – The Radical Environmental Journal
No Compromise in Defense of Mother Earth
*  Earth Island Institute
provides organizational support in developing projects for the conservation, preservation, and restoration of the global environment
This independent + apolitical site aims to help the non-specialist to become more involved in the discussion of global social and environmental issues than is often the case… principally by putting links to good quality, readable and useful information, covering many of the key issues and organisations, in one place.
a non-profit 501(c)3 organization that develops, compiles, categorizes, and delivers environmental education and information resources to the world at large using leading electronic technologies.
*  EcoNet
See also their comprehensive EcoNet Directory
*  Environmental Links
An extensive list of links to environmental-related information around the world
(graciously provided by the Mendocino Environmental Center)
*  Global Network of Environment & Technology
an award-winning environmental technology, news and business center that promotes the use of innovative environmental technologies.
*  Greenpeace
„the leading independent campaigning organization that uses non-violent direct action and creative communication to expose global environmental problems and to promote solutions that are essential to a green and peaceful future.”
*  Headwaters – Direct Action Campaign
to balance the need to protect immediately what is threatened and the need to nurture the conservation values and sense of place which are necessary for the creation of long-term protection of intact ecosystems in the Klamath-Siskiyou Bioregion.
See also: Headwaters Earth First!
*  Indigenous Environmental Network
an alliance of grassroots indigenous peoples whose mission is to protect the sacredness of Mother Earth from contamination and exploitation by strengthening maintaining and respecting the traditional teachings and the natural laws
*  Information Center for the Environment
a cooperative effort of environmental scientists at the University of California, Davis and collaborators at over thirty private, state, federal, and international organizations interested in environmental protection.
*  Natural Resources Defense Council
NRDC uses law, science, and the support of more than 400,000 members nationwide to protect the planet’s wildlife and wild places and to ensure a safe and healthy environment for all living things.
*  Rainforest Action Network
The Rainforest Action Network works to protect the Earth’s rainforests and support the rights of their inhabitants through education, grassroots organizing, and non-violent direct action.
*  Surfrider Foundation
a grassroots based, non-profit environmental organization that works to protect the coast.
*  World Wildlife Fund
a global organization that is doing all it can to halt the accelerating destruction of our natural world



*  American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)The ACLU’s mission is to fight civil liberties violations whenever and whereever they occur.

*  Coalition for Progressive ValuesTo infuse progressive values throughout public policy in America by connecting progressive organizations, their members and other citizens with each other and to ballot initiatives, campaigns and legislative action.

*  Common Causea nonprofit, nonpartisan citizen’s lobbying organization promoting open, honest and accountable governmentTheir Washington Watchdog area is particularly useful

*  Endgame Research Servicesprovides research services and training to citizens who are working for corporate and governmental accountability, and who are committed to socially just and ecologically sustainable societies.

*  The Freedom Foruma nonpartisan, international foundation dedicated to free press, free speech and free spirit for all people. The foundation focuses on four main priorities: the Newseum, First Amendment freedoms, newsroom diversity and world press freedom.

*  The Freedom of Information CenterServing the general public and the media on questions about access to government documents and information

*  From The Wildernessby Mike Ruppert who, according to Dick Gregory, is „the man who cost CIA Director Deutch his guaranteed appointment as Secretary of Defense after confronting him at Locke High School with hard facts about CIA dealing drugs.”

*  Human Rights Discussion & Mailing ListsDiscussion of human rights issues including civic, political, economic and social rights, as defined by international law.

*  The Independent InstituteEnlightening ideas for public policyThe Lighthouse – a weekly e-mail newsletter – is a good read

*  InFactChallenging corporate abuseBuilding grassroots power

*  Institute for First Amendment Studiesa non-profit founded in 1984 to expose and counter the political activities of the radical Religious Right

*  People for the American Waycommitted to defending democracy and bringing the ideals of community, opportunity, diversity, equality and fairness together to form a strong, united voice

* – by Declan McCullagha moderated mailing list of politics and technology. Topics include privacy, free speech, the role of government and corporations, antitrust, and more.

*  Power Structure Researchan approach to the study of power that highlights the unequal distribution of resources upon which power is based (e.g., wealth, political office, control of the mass media) and the importance of formal and informal social networks as the means by which power is concentrated and institutionalized

*  Program on Corporations, Law & Democracy (POCLAD)Instigating democratic conversations and actions that contest the authority of corporations to govern.

*  ProgressivePunch.orga non-partisan searchable database of Congressional voting records from a Progressive perspective

*  Public CitizenProtecting Health, Safety & Democracy since 1971Founded by Ralph Nader

*  School of the Americas WatchSOA Watch is an independent organization that seeks to close the US Army School of the Americas, under whatever name it is called, through vigils and fasts, demonstrations and nonviolent protest, as well as media and legislative work.

*  Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC)Want the real dope on the feds? Want to know what government enforcers actually DO rather than what they SAY they do? TRAC is a source for nonpartisan facts on federal law enforcement. Its mission: to put the government on the record–it’s own record.TRAC the ATFDEAFBIIRS and others…

*  United for a Fair EconomyCreators of the excellent and informative site Billionaires For Bush Or Gore .comworking to address the widening income and asset gap in our country

*  WartimeLiberty.comthe place to find factual, no-nonsense information about the tension between liberty and security during wartime.


*  Alternative Health News Onlinepresents a number of techniques and approaches that appear to be worth your time to investigate and to discuss with your physician or health-care provider, and reports on wellness and natural approaches to staying healthy and living longer.

*  AlternativeMedicine.comThe Internet’s largest database of alternative medical health information

*  American Preventative Medical Association„Making Health Care Freedom a Reality”

*  Center for Food Safetyprovides leadership in legal, scientific, and grassroots efforts to address the increasing concerns about the impacts of our food production system on human health, animal welfare, and the environment.

*  California Citizens for Health Freedoma grassroots advocacy organization committed to protecting and expanding consumer natural health choices.

*  The Human Awareness Institute (HAI)HAI promotes personal growth and social evolution by replacing ignorance and fear with awareness and love. The Human Awareness Institute aims to create a world where people live together in dignity, respect, understanding, trust, kindness, honesty, compassion and love.

*  The Food Guide PyramidThe Food Guide Pyramid for Young ChildrenNew Food Pyramid (Scientific American, January 2003)

*  Institute for Health Freedomestablished to bring the issues of personal health freedom to the forefront of America’s health policy debate

*  MindFreedom / Support Coalition Internationalan alliance of more than 70 grassroots groups in 11 countries united to win human rights in the „mental health system.”

*  National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)a center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science; training CAM researchers; and disseminating authoritative information.

*  Organic Consumers AssociationCampaigning for Food Safety, Organic Agriculture, Fair Trade & Sustainability.

*  Path to FreedomProviding pathways for living a self-sufficient lifestyle in an urban setting

*  Sex and SexualitySuch an important topic it gets it’s own section

*  Tobacco and its Dangers

Infact’s Tobacco Industry Campaign
Kraft Boycott
Bombarded by billions of dollars in tobacco advertising and promotion, 3,000 US teens start smoking every day. Half of those who wind up hooked for life will die a painful, early death from illnesses like lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and strokes. Tobacco giant Philip Morris counts on us to support them in the grocery store by buying their Kraft, Post, and Maxwell House products.
your guide to smokefree dining, entertainment and travel.
„our goal is to alert everyone to the lies and hidden practices of the cigarette companies, while giving people the tools to have a voice in changing that.”

*  True Food Nowa free service from Greenpeace, to connect consumers who want to take action to end the use of genetically engineered (GE) ingredients in our foods.

*  World Food ProgrammeHunger afflicts one out of seven people on Earth. WFP is the frontline United Nations Agency whose mission is to provide: Food for LIFE to sustain victims of man-made and natural disasters; Food for GROWTH to improve the nutrition and quality of life of the most vulnerable people at critical times in their lives; and Food for WORK to help build assets and promote the self-reliance of poor people and communities, particularly through labour-intensive works programmes.

*  World Health OrganizationThe objective of WHO is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health, as defined in the WHO Constitution, is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

*  Yoga (DMOZ directory listing)


*  Alternative News Sites (compiled by the Think team)
Get your news from places other than AOL/Yime-Warner media conglomerates
„Your best source for antiwar news, viewpoints and activities”
Flash! When Will We Learn? – by Harry Browne
*  Baring Witness
PEACE – it’s such a simple word, but it has many connotations in the current political climate.
*  Iraq Peace Pledge/Pledge of Resistance
Sponsored by a growing coalition of national and local groups, the Iraq Peace Pledge is a way for you to publicly register your opposition to war on Iraq, and more.
Join a nationwide grassroots netowrk for change
*  Not In Our Name
Take the Pledge of Resistance
*  Peace Action
Peace Action works to achieve the abolition of nuclear weapons, the development of a peace-oriented economy, an end to the international weapons trade, and promotes non-military solutions to international conflict.
listings of anti-war and anti-racism events that are being organized around the world
*  United for Peace
Let’s show the world that we are united in our opposition to a war against Iraq.
*  Win Without War
a coalition of national organizations representing broad constituencies that aim to Keep America Safe by advocating alternatives to preemptive war in Iraq. The coalition offers a mainstream, patriotic voice for engaging opinion makers, activating concerned citizens, and communicating effectively to the media.
*  Amnesty International
Join the FAST (Fast Action Stops Torture) Campaign. It’s the easiest way I know of to make a difference.
*  California Peace Action
you may remember them as CA SANE/FREEZE…
*  Center for Economic Conversion
dedicated to building a sustainable peace-oriented economy
*  DMOZ: Society: Issues: Peace
An excellent resource of links
*  Federation of American Scientist
dedicated to the responsible use of science and technology.
*  Free Tibet
[Free Tibet!]The situation in Tibet is desperate: after more than 45 years of Chinese occupation of the country the Tibetan people are literally at risk of disappearing from the face of the earth in a few years. The opening of dialogue between the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Government in Exile and the Peoples Republic of China, still unrealized, adds to the gravity of the situation.
*  Manifesto 2000 — [English Translation]
Manifesto 2000The year 2000 must be a new beginning for us all. Together we can transform the culture of war and violence into a culture of peace and non-violence. This demands the participation of everyone.
See also: the One Day In Peace project… Just Imagine!
*  Nonviolence International
information and resources on the use of nonviolent direct action in the service of justice and human development
*  the nonviolence web
ACT UP Civil Disobedience Manual & Index
Consensus Decision Making
Nonviolent Civil Disobedience Handbook (from the October 1987 Stop First Strike actions in Santa Cruz, CA)
*  Peace Brigades International
Without the accompaniment of Peace Brigades International, I would not be alive today. — Amilcar Mendez, Council of Ethnic Communities, Guatemala
*  PeaceNet
on-line for peace and justice
*  Peaceweb
Quaker page
*  Towards a Global Ethic
participate in the realization of an ethic for global peace
(a project of the Council for a Parliament of the World’s Religions (CPWR)
*  United States Institute of Peace
a collection of Internet resources relating to international conflict resolution, negotiation theory, and peace studies
*  Universal Declaration of Human Rights
December 10, 1998 marked the 50 year anniversary of this important document.
*  War & Peace Foundation
We seek to help hasten an end to militarism, war and the causes of war.
*  War Resisters League
The War Resisters League affirms that all war is a crime against humanity. We therefore are determined not to support any kind of war, international or civil, and to strive nonviolently for the removal of all causes of war.
*  We The Peoples Initiative
a co-operative movement to unite the strengths of existing organizations and projects toward making Peace a practical reality in the 21st century


 History of Mass Nonviolent Action
 Consensus Process
 Tools for Consensus Process
 Discrimination and Militarism
 Affinity Groups and Support Responsibilites

 ACT UP Civil Disobedience Manual & Index
This site has updated versions of this Handbook, including Consensus Decision Making
 the nonviolence web
 War Resisters League


*  Americans for Computer Privacy (ACP)The ACP is focused on educating the public and lawmakers on the encryption issue. „Your privacy is at stake!”

*  Association for Computing Machinery (USACM) Privacy Page

*  CDT Guide to Online PrivacySNOOPER 2.0 – Who’s Watching You and What are You Telling Them?

*  Crypto„No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.”
– Universal Declaration of Human Rights

*  Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)EFF privacy archive

*  Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC)EPIC privacy archiveEPIC online privacy toolsEPIC reports on profiling and Total Information Awareness

*  Encryption, Privacy and Security Resource PageEncryption technology is the key to the future of the information revolution.

*  Online Privacy Alliance„The Online Privacy Alliance is a diverse group of corporations and associations who have come together to introduce and promote business-wide actions that create an environment of trust and foster the protection of individuals’ privacy online.”

*  Privacilla.orgPrivacilla takes a free-market liberal (or libertarian) stance toward privacy issues.

*  The Privacy JournalWhat is privacy? The right of individuals to control the collection and use of personal information about themselves

*, which hosts

Privacy International
Formed in 1990 as a watchdog on surveillance by governments and corporations, PI helps to raise awareness about the dangers of ID card systems, military surveillance, data matching, police information systems, and credit reporting.

*  Privacy, Profiling & Commerce Protocols from the W3CNote especially the Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P)Also, check out the OpenPrivacy Bibliography

*  Privacy Rights ClearinghouseSee also their excellent links and legal resources

*  The Coming Jurisdictional Swamp of Global Internetworking by Douglas Barnes(Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Anonymity)

*  Privacy Protection: Time to Think and Act Locally [PDF]From Release 1.0 (April 1998) by Esther Dyson

*  The PRIVACY ForumThe PRIVACY Forum includes a moderated digest for the discussion and analysis of issues relating to the general topic of privacy (both personal and collective) in the „information age” of the 1990’s and beyond.

*  Security And Freedom through Encryption (SAFE)SAFE’s goal is to raise awareness for the importance of encryption technology to enhance privacy and security on the global information infrastructure, and the problems posed by the current US approach to cryptography policy

*  Webveilthe pragmatic Web surfer’s guide to Internet privacy.

*  Wired’s Clipper Archive (old but still useful)and index of privacy resources


*  Action Without Borders (
A global coalition of individuals and organizations working to build a world where all people can live free, dignified and productive lives.
*  Activist Handbook (
A pretty good practical introduction to being politically active
a global network of artists, activists, writers, pranksters, students, educators and entrepreneurs who want to advance the new social activist movement of the information age
*  Anarchy Online – A new book investigating sex on the Internet
by Charles Platt
*  Bay Area Progressive Directory and Calendar
Ken Cheetham’s excellent list of events and other happenings in the Bay Area that may be of interest to progressive minded people.
*  Bureau of Public Secrets
dedicated to all prisoners: „while there is a soul in jail, I am not free”
an online gathering place for independent, grass-roots conservatism on the web.
*  Free Speech Movement Archive
Documenting Student Protest – U.C. Berkeley, 1964-65
*  Institute for Global Communications (IGC)
supporting global computer networks including PeaceNet, EcoNet, WomensNet, and AntiRacismNet and webhosting for non-profits as well as progressive individuals and companies
working to bring ordinary people back into politics
„To know, to utter and to argue freely according to conscience above all liberties” –John Milton
*  Starhawk Community Access Network
Links for sustainable living
*  Trouble Tickets/
Focusing on two main projects:

  1. to help activists in the grassroots movements for social justice and democracy learn to make better use of the Web medium
  2. to develop new „narratives” of opposition to right-wing ideological dominance.
*  TV Turnoff Network
a national nonprofit organization that encourages children and adults to watch much less television in order to promote healthier lives and communities
When surfing the web is not enough…
*  Working Assets Long Distance
Put your phone to work! Working Assets is a credit card and long distance calling card company with a conscience that donates a sizable ammount of money every year to a set of great causes that the subscribes get to vote on. They often provide free phone calls to Washington congresscritters for important issues.

Dispărute, dar nu uitate

a resource for activist campaigns online, focusing on issues such as human rights, AIDS, environmentalism, corporate responsibility, and sustainable development.
*  GovAccess archives
Jim Warren <> runs an excellent newsletter called GovAccess that has a goal of making the process of governmental decisions open to the people, currently (and, perhaps, unfortunately) especially those who have email. EMail him to get on his list.
*  Outlaws On The Electronic Frontier (warning: uses <blink>)
Contains: Psychological Warfare Primer For Online Activism: version 2.0
*  Paranoia
Privacy, Free Expression and Ethics on the Internet
*  The Think List archives
Information designed to make you think
*  Voters Telcomm Watch (VTW)

Dacă ai ajuns aici, vei primi niște „prăjiturele”.. informează-te!

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Exemple: - setarile volumului pentru video player - viteza de video streaming cu care este compatibil browserul Cookie-uri pentru analiza vizitatorilor De fiecare data cand un utilizator viziteaza acest site softul de analytics furnizat de o terta parte genereaza un cookie de analiza a utilizatorului. Acest cookie ne spune daca ati mai vizitat acest site pana acum. Browserul ne va spune daca aveti acest cookie, iar daca nu, vom genera unul. Acesta permite monitorizarea utilizatorilor unici care ne viziteaza si cat de des o fac. Atat timp cat nu sunteti inregistrat pe acest site, acest cookie nu poate fi folosit pentru a identifica persoanele fizice, ele sunt folosite doar in scop statistic. Daca sunteti inregistrat putem sti, de asemenea, detaliile pe care ni le-ati furnizat, cum ar fi adresa de e-mail si username-ul – acestea fiind supuse confidentialitatii si prevederilor din Termeni si Conditii, Politica de confidentialitate precum si prevederilor legislatiei in vigoare cu privire la protejarea datelor cu caracter personal. 2. Cookie-uri pentru geotargetting Aceste cookie-uri sunt utilizate de catre un soft care stabileste din ce tara proveniti. Este complet anonim si este folosit doar pentru a targeta continutul – chiar si atunci cand sunteti pe pagina noastra in limba romana sau in alta limba primiti aceeasi reclama. 3. Cookie-uri pentru inregistrare Atunci cand va inregistrati pe acest site, generam un cookie care ne anunta daca sunteti inregistrat sau nu. Serverele noastre folosesc aceste cookie-uri pentru a ne arata contul cu care sunteti ingregistrat si daca aveti permisiunea pentru un serviciu anume. De asemenea, ne permite sa asociem orice comentariu pe care il postati pe site-ul nostru cu username-ul dvs. Daca nu ati selectat “pastreaza-ma inregistrat”, acest cookie se va sterge automat cand veti inchide browserul sau calculatorul. 4. Cookie-uri pentru publicitate Aceste cookie-uri ne permit sa aflam daca ati vizualizat sau nu o reclama online, care este tipul acesteia si cat timp a trecut de cand ati vazut mesajul publicitar. Aceste cookie-uri le folosim si pentru a targeta publicitatea online. Putem folosi, de asemenea, cookie- uri apartinand unei terte parti, pentu o mai buna targetare a publicitatii, pentru a arata de exemplu reclame despre vacante, daca utilizatorul a vizitat recent un articol pe site despre vacante. Aceste cookie-uri sunt anonime, ele stocheaza informatii despre contentul vizualizat, nu despre utilizatori. De asemenea, setam cookie-uri anonime si prin alte site-uri pe care avem publicitate. Primindu-le, astfel, noi le putem folosi pentru a va recunoaste ca vizitator al acelui site daca ulterior veti vizita site-ul nostru, va vom putea livra publicitatea bazata pe aceasta informatie. 5. Cookie-uri ale furnizorilor de publicitate O mare parte din publicitatea pe care o gasiti pe acest site apartine tertelor parti. Unele dintre aceste parti folosesc propriile cookie-uri anonime pentru a analiza cat de multe persoane au fost expuse unui mesaj publicitar, sau pentru a vedea cate persoane au fost expuse de mai multe ori la aceeasi reclama. Companiile care genereaza aceste cookie-uri au propriile politici de confidentialitate, iar acest site nu are acces pentru a citi sau scrie aceste cookie-uri. Cookie-urile celor terte parti pot fi folosite pentru a va arata publicitatea targeta si pe alte site-uri, bazandu-se pe navigarea dvs pe acest site. 6. Alte cookie-uri ale tertelor parti Pe unele pagini, tertii pot seta propriile cookie-uri anonime, in scopul de a urmari succesul unei aplicatii, sau pentru a customiza o aplicatie. Datorita modului de utilizare, acest site nu poate accesa aceste cookie-uri, la fel cum tertele parti nu pot accesa cookie-urile detinute de acest site. De exemplu, cand distribuiti un articol folosind butonul pentru retelele sociale aflat pe acest site, acea retea sociala va inregistra activitatea dvs. Ce tip de informatii sunt stocate si accesate prin intermediul cookie-urilor? Cookie-urile pastreaza informatii intr-un fisier text de mici dimensiuni care permit unui website sa recunoasca un browser. Webserverul va recunoaste browserul pana cand cookie-ul expira sau este sters. Cookie-ul stocheaza informatii importante care imbunatatesc experienta de navigare pe Internet ( ex: setarile limbii in care se doreste accesarea unui site; pastrarea unui user logat in contul de webmail; securitatea online banking; pastrarea produselor in cosul de cumparaturi) De ce sunt cookie-urile importante pentru Internet? Cookie-urile reprezinta punctul central al functionarii eficiente a Internetului, ajutand la generarea unei experiente de navigare prietenoase si adaptata preferintelor si intereselor fiecarui utilizator. Refuzarea sau dezactivarea cookieurilor poate face unele site-uri imposibil de folosit. Refuzarea sau dezactivarea cookie-urilor nu inseamna ca nu veti mai primi publicitate online – ci doar ca aceasta nu va mai putea tine cont de preferintele si interesele dvs, evidentiate prin comportamentul de navigare. Exemple de intrebuintari importante ale cookieurilor (care nu necesita autentificarea unui utilizator prin intermediul unui cont): - Continut si servicii adaptate preferintelor utilizatorului – categorii de stiri, vreme, sport, harti, servicii publice si guvernamentale, site-uri de entertainment si servicii de travel. - Oferte adaptate pe interesele utilizatorilor – retinerea parolelor, preferintele de limba (Ex: afisarea rezultatelor cautarilor in limba Romana). - Retinerea filtrelor de protectie a copiilor privind continutul pe Internet (optiuni family mode, functii de safe search). - Limitarea frecventei de difuzare a reclamelor – limitarea numarului de afisari a unei reclame pentru un anumit utilizator pe un site. - Furnizarea de publicitate mai relevanta pentru utilizator. - Masurarea, optimizare si caracteristicile de analytics – cum ar fi confirmarea unui anumit nivel de trafic pe un website, ce tip de continut este vizualizat si modul cum un utilizator ajunge pe un website (ex prin motoare de cautare, direct, din alte website-uri etc). Website-urile deruleaza aceste analize a utilizarii lor pentru a imbunatati site-urile in beneficiul userilor. Securitate si probleme legate de confidentialitate Cookie-urile NU sunt virusi! Ele folosesc formate tip plain text. Nu sunt alcatuite din bucati de cod asa ca nu pot fi executate nici nu pot auto-rula. In consecinta, nu se pot duplica sau replica pe alte retele pentru a se rula sau replica din nou. Deoarece nu pot indeplini aceste functii, nu pot fi considerate virusi. Cookie-urile pot fi totusi folosite pentru scopuri negative. Deoarece stocheaza informatii despre preferintele si istoricul de navigare al utilizatorilor, atat pe un anume site cat si pe mai multe alte site- uri, cookieurile pot fi folosite ca o forma de Spyware. Multe produse anti-spyware sunt constiente de acest fapt si in mod constant marcheaza cookie-urile pentru a fi sterse in cadrul procedurilor de stergere/scanare anti-virus/anti-spyware. In general browserele au integrate setari de confidentialitate care furnizeaza diferite nivele de acceptare a cookieurilor, perioada de valabilitate si stergere automata dupa ce utilizatorul a vizitat un anumit site. Alte aspecte de securitate legate de cookie-uri Deoarece protectia identitatii este foarte valoroasa si reprezinta dreptul fiecarui utilizator de internet, este indicat sa se stie ce eventuale probleme pot crea cookieurile. Pentru ca prin intermediul lor se transmit in mod constant in ambele sensuri informatii intre browser si website, daca un atacator sau persoana neautorizata intervine in parcursul de transmitere a datelor, informatiile continute de cookie pot fi interceptate. Desi foarte rar, acest lucru se poate intampla daca browserul se conecteaza la server folosind o retea necriptata (ex: o retea WiFi nesecurizata). Alte atacuri bazate pe cookie implica setari gresite ale cookieurilor pe servere. Daca un website nu solicita browserului sa foloseasca doar canale criptate, atacatorii pot folosi aceasta vulnerabilitate pentru a pacali browserele in a trimite informatii prin intermediul canalelor nesecurizate. Atacatorii utilizeaza apoi informatiile in scopuri de a accesa neautorizat anumite site-uri. Este foarte important sa fiti atenti in alegerea metodei celei mai potrivite de protectie a informatiilor personale. Sfaturi pentru o navigare sigura si responsabila, bazata pe cookies. Datorita flexibilitatii lor si a faptului ca majoritatea dintre cele mai vizitate site-uri si cele mai mari folosesc cookie-uri, acestea sunt aproape inevitabile. Dezactivarea cookie-urilor nu va permite accesul utilizatorului pe site-urile cele mai raspandite si utilizate printre care Youtube, Gmail, Yahoo si altele. Iata cateva sfaturi care va pot asigura ca nevigati fara griji insa cu ajutorul cookieurilor: • Particularizati-va setarile browserului in ceea ce priveste cookie-urile pentru a reflecta un nivel confortabil pentru voi al securitatii utilizarii cookie-urilor. • Daca nu va deranjeaza cookie-urile si sunteti singura persoana care utilizaeaza computerul, puteti seta termene lunigi de expirare pentru stocarea istoricului de navigare si al datelor personale de acces. • Daca impartiti accesul la calculator, puteti lua in considerare setarea browserului pentru a sterge datele individuale de navigare de fiecare data cand inchideti browserul. Aceasta este o varianta de a accesa site-urile care plaseaza cookieuri si de a sterge orice informatie de vizitare la inchiderea sesiunii navigare. • Instalati-va si updatati-va constant aplicatii antispyware. Multe dintre aplicatiile de detectare si prevenire a spyware-ului includ detectarea atacurilor pe site-uri. Astfel, impiedica browserul de la a accesa website-uri care ar putea sa exploateze vulnerabilitatile browserului sau sa descarce software periculos. Asigurati-va ca aveti browserul mereu updatat. Multe dintre atacurile bazate pe cookies se realizeaza exploatand punctele slabe ale versiunilor vechi ale browserelor. Cookie-urile sunt pretutindeni si nu pot fi evitate daca doriti sa va bucurati de acces pe cele mai bune si cele mai mari site-uri de pe Internet – locale sau internationale. Cu o intelegere clara a modului lor de operare si a beneficiilor pe care le aduc, puteti lua masurile necesare de securitate astel incat sa puteti naviga cu incredere pe internet. Cum pot opri cookie-urile? Dezactivarea si refuzul de a primi cookie-uri pot face anumite site-uri impracticabile sau dificil de vizitat si folosit. De asemenea, refuzul de a accepta cookie-uri nu inseamna ca nu veti mai primi/vedea publicitate online. Este posibila setarea din browser pentru ca aceste cookie-uri sa nu mai fie acceptate sau poti seta browserul sa accepte cookie-uri de la un site anume. Dar, de exemplu, daca nu esti inregistat folosind cookie-urile, nu vei putea lasa comentarii. Toate browserele moderne ofera posibilitatea de a schimba setarile cookie-urilor. Aceste setari se gasesc de regula in “optiuni” sau in meniul de “preferinte” al browserului tau. Pentru a intelege aceste setari, urmatoarele linkuri pot fi folositoare, altfel puteti folosi optiunea “ajutor” a browserului pentru mai multe detalii: Cookie settings in Internet Explorer- Cookie settings in Firefox- Cookie settings in Chrome- Cookie settings in Safari- Pentru setarile cookie-urilor generate de terti, puteti consulta si site-ul: Linkuri utile Daca doriti sa afli mai multe infromatii despre cookie-uri si la ce sunt utilizate, recomandam urmatoarele linkuri: Microsoft Cookies guide- All About Cookies- IAB Romania pune la dispozitie urmatorul site pentru a oferi mai multe informatii privind confidentialitatea legata de publicitatea online: Pentru mai multe detalii legate de probleme de confidentialitate, puteti accesa si urmatoarele linkuri: • OUG 13/2012 pentru modificarea si completarea Legii nr. 506/2004 privind prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal si protectia vietii private in sectorul comunicatiilor electronice- • • Cookies – what are they and how do they work?- •