Richard, pur și simplu

Îi place să-i spui pe nume, fără fasoane. Richard pur și simplu..Despre el, cine este, ce a făcut, poți afla într-o mulțime de locuri de pe Internet: AICI, AICI, AICI, AICI, etc.

Mai  greu de găsit este o informație personală: Richard iubește Europa, mai ales Italia. Motiv pentru care vine des aici, mai ales prin părțile Genovei. Cum Europa e uimitor de mică, înghesuită și diversificată, lui Richard îi face plăcere să meargă din loc în loc și să vorbească, ca evanghelist al Internetului.

Așa că dacă credeți că puteți aduna în jur de 150-200 de entuziaști în căutare disperată  de mentori, căutați-l pe Richard la următoarea adresă  și invitați-l. Vorbește în engleză, franceză sau spaniolă. Cerințele lui sunt cele ale unui hipiot normal, are nevoie de minimul de confort iar acesta e setul de cerințe și temele lui de discurs:

I have updated the info packet, so please use this version.richard_stallman_laptop_3

Here’s the info packet about my speeches.  This information is
essential for planning my visit and speech.

Please discuss with me what the topic of this speech should be.
You cannot decide this on your own.

My talks are not technical.  The topics of free software, copyright vs
community, and digital inclusion deal with ethical/political issues
that concern all users of computers.  The topics of GPL version 3 and
software patents are mainly of of interest to people that work with

My usual speech about the Free Software Movement and GNU takes a
little over 1.5 hours in English, plus time for questions, photos,
distribution of FSF things, and so on.  It is best to allow plenty of
time for questions, because people usually want to ask a lot of
questions.  In total, it is best to allow 2.5 hours.

The topics I speak about are

Free Software and Your Freedom
(alternate titles:
The Free Software Movement and the GNU/Linux Operating System,
Free Software in Ethics and in Practice)

Copyright vs Community in the Age of Computer Networks

The Danger of Software Patents

The GNU General Public License
What we’ve changed in version 3, and why

A Free Digital Society
(alternate title, What Makes Digital Inclusion Good or Bad?)

These topics take about an hour and a quarter in English,
plus time for questions, photos, signatures, etc.  I suggest
allowing at least two hours.

Each topic takes substantially longer in other languages.

I can also possibly speak about some other topic if you suggest one.


For a speech about Free Software, you can use this abstract:

The Free Software Movement campaigns for computer users’ freedom
to cooperate and control their own computing.  The Free Software
Movement developed the GNU operating system, typically used together
with the kernel Linux, specifically to make these freedoms possible.


Richard Stallman will speak about the goals and philosophy of the
Free Software Movement, and the status and history of the GNU
operating system, which in combination with the kernel Linux is
now used by tens of millions of users world-wide.

For Copyright vs Community, you can use this abstract:

Copyright developed in the age of the printing press, and was designed
to fit with the system of centralized copying imposed by the printing
press.  But the copyright system does not fit well with computer
networks, and only draconian punishments can enforce it.

The global corporations that profit from copyright are lobbying
for draconian punishments, and to increase their copyright powers,
while suppressing public access to technology.  But if we
seriously hope to serve the only legitimate purpose of
copyright–to promote progress, for the benefit of the
public–then we must make changes in the other direction.

For The Danger of Software Patents, you can use this abstract:

Richard Stallman will explain how software patents obstruct
software development.  Software patents are patents that cover
software ideas.  They restrict the development of software, so
that every design decision brings a risk of getting sued.  Patents
in other fields restrict factories, but software patents restrict
every computer user.  Economic research shows that they even
retard progress.

For The GNU General Public License

Richard Stallman wrote the first GNU General Public License in
1989, and version 3 which was completed in 2007.  He will discuss
the philosophy of the GNU GPL, the changes made in version 3,
and the reasons for those changes.

For A Free Digital Society

Activities directed at „including” more people in the use of digital
technology are predicated on the assumption that such inclusion is
invariably a good thing.  It appears so, when judged solely by
immediate practical convenience.  However, if we also judge in terms
of human rights, whether digital inclusion is good or bad depends on
what kind of digital world we are to be included in.  If we wish to
work towards digital inclusion as a goal, it behooves us to make sure
it is the good kind.

Brief bio:

Richard Stallman launched the development of the GNU operating system
(see in 1984.  GNU is free software: everyone has the
freedom to copy it and redistribute it, as well as to make changes
either large or small.  The GNU/Linux system, basically the GNU
operating system with Linux added, is used on tens of millions of
computers today.  Stallman has received the ACM Grace Hopper Award, a
MacArthur Foundation fellowship, the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s
Pioneer Award, and the the Takeda Award for Social/Economic
Betterment, as well as several honorary doctorates.

(A longer version is available if you want it.)


There is a black-and-white photograph of me as a
5820K Encapsulated Postscript file (
3762K JPEG file (, and
5815K TIFF file (

Other photos can be found on

Asking for the text:

I don’t write my speeches in advance–that would take too much time.
However, transcripts of my past speeches are available.  If you can
make a transcript of my speech after I give it, that would be quite


I absolutely refuse to have a break in the middle of my speech.
Once I start, I will go straight through.

Participation in a larger event:

I am selective about the events I participate in.  If you are inviting
me to speak at a larger event, please inform me now of the overall
nature of the event, so I can make an informed decision about whether
to participate.

I usually decline to participate in „open source” or „Linux” events.
See for why it is incorrect
to refer to the operating system as „Linux”.

„Open source” is the slogan of a movement that was formed as a
reaction against the free software movement.  Those who support its
views have a right to promote them, but I disagree with them and I
want to promote the ideals of free software.  See for more
explanation of the difference.  However, I will agree to participate
in events labeled „Free Software and Open Source”, provided that my
speech is not the principal draw of the event.

Erecting a larger event:

If you are thinking of erecting a larger event around my speech,
please talk with me about the plans for such a larger event _before_
proceeding with them.  I want to make sure the event entirely supports
what I am trying to achieve, and I want to review the publicity plans
for the event.

Venues and planning:

All my talks are aimed at the general computer-using public.  They are
not technical.  With good, broad publicity, many people will come —
usually hundreds.

So don’t aim small.  Please plan each speech in a large room, then
plan the publicity to bring people in to fill it.  Please do not
suggest scheduling a „small speech”, because that makes no sense as a
goal.  I would always rather reach as many people as I feasibly can.

If the speech is at a university, please do the publicity all around
the university.  Don’t limit it to your department!  We also want
people from off-campus to come, so please inform local IT businesses,
user groups, and other relevant organizations.

We will also want to inform the region’s daily newspapers so they can
put the speech in their calendar sections, and anything else we can
think of.  Each additional interested person who comes means an increase
in the results achieved by the speech.

Make sure you inform the public that my talk is not technical, so
anyone interested in ethics and use of computers might wish to come.


A microphone is desirable if the room is large.  A supply of tea with
milk and sugar would be nice; otherwise, non-diet Pepsi will do.  (I
dislike the taste of coke, and of all diet soda; also, there is an
international boycott of the Coca Cola company for killing union
organizers in Colombia and Guatemala; see  If it is
good tea, I like it without milk and sugar.  With milk and sugar, any
kind of tea is fine.  I always bring tea bags with me, so if we
arrange to use my tea bags, that takes care of the issue.

No other facilities are needed.  I do not have slides or any sort
of presentation materials.


I can speak in English, French, and Spanish.

If the audience won’t be comfortable with a language I can speak, it
is important to have a translator.  However, consecutive translation
is not feasible, because it would more than double the length of the
speech.  Please do not ask me to do that–I will refuse.

I have found it works to do simultaneous translation without special
systems: I speak into the ear of the interpreter, and the interpreter
speaks to the microphone.  This avoids the need for special
transmitters and headsets.  However, it does require an interpreter
capable of doing simultaneous translation for more than an hour.
Do not propose doing this with a person whose translation skills
are not adequate for this.

I can try to give a shortened free software speech (about 30 minutes
or material).  With consecutive translation it will take an hour or
more.  I will be forced to omit many of the points in the usual

Restricting admission:

If you plan to restrict admission to my speech, or charge a fee for
admission, please discuss this with me *personally in advance* to get
my approval for the plan.  If you have imposed charges without my
direct personal approval, I may refuse to do the speech.

I’m not categorically against limiting admission or fees, but
excluding people means the speech does less good, so I want to make
sure that the limitations are as small as necessary.  For instance,
you can allow students and low-paid people and political activists to
get in free, even if professionals have to pay.  We will discuss what
to do.


If corporations sponsor my talk, I am willing to include a small
tasteful note of thanks in announcements and brochures, but no more
than that.  There should be no descriptions of their products or
services, and no banners with their names.  If a would-be sponsor
insists on more than that, we have to do without that sponsor.

If my speech is part of a pre-existing larger event that I have agreed
to participate in, I can’t impose such conditions for the whole event.
However, if banners will be on display next to me while I am speaking,
that is rather obnoxious; if they advertise organizations that I
disapprove of on ethical grounds (which is not unlikely) I would want
to take them down, cover them up, or turn them off during my speech.


The GNU Project constantly struggles against two widespread mistakes
that undermine the effectiveness of our work: calling our work „open
source„, and calling the GNU operating system „Linux”.  Another very
bad mistake is using the term „intellectual property”.

The Free Software Movement and the Open Source Movement are like two
political parties in our community.  I founded the Free Software
Movement in 1984 along with the GNU Project; we call our work „free
software” because it is software that respects the users freedom.  The
Open Source Movement was founded, in 1998, specifically to reject our
idealistic philosophy–they studiously avoid talking about freedom.
See for
more explanation of the difference between the two movements.

So please make sure that all the publicity about the event (web site,
email announcements, conference programs, direct mail, signs, etc),
uses the term „free software”, not „open source”, when you refer to
work that includes mine.  This includes to the title and descriptions
of my speech, of the session it is in, of the track it is part of, and
of the event itself.

Of course, some of these names and descriptions may not refer to this
work at all; for example, if a track or the whole event covers a much
broader topic in which free software is just a small part, its name
may not refer to free software.  That is normal and appropriate.  The
point is not to ask you to refer to this work more often than you
normally would, but that you should describe it accurately whenever
you do refer to it.

If other speakers in the same session, track, or event want their work
to be categorized as „open source”, that is a legitimate request for
them to make.  In that case, please give „free software” equal mention
with „open source”.

If you think it is useful to tell people how free software relates to
open source, you can say that „since 1998, another group has used the
term `open source’ to describe a related activity.”  That will tell
people that my work has a relationship with „open source”, which they
may have heard of, without implying it is right to describe my work as
open source.”

The other widespread confusion is the idea of a „Linux operating
system„.  The system in question, the system that Debian and Red Hat
distribute, the system that tens of millions of people use, is
basically the GNU operating system, with Linux added as the kernel.
When people call the whole system „Linux”, they deny us the credit for
our work, and this is not right.  (See for more explanation.)

So please call this combined operating system „GNU/Linux” in all
the publicity, in the titles and description of the session, track,
event, etc., if and when you have reason to refer to it.

For similar reasons, please don’t use a penguin as a symbol for my
work, or on the posters or notices for my speech.  The penguin stands
for „Linux”; the symbol of GNU is a gnu.  So if you want to use a
graphical image to symbolize GNU or my work, please use a gnu.

If you have handled these issues well, nobody who looks at your
material will get the impression that I work on „open source”, or that
I support „open source”, or that my work is „part of Linux”, or that I
participated in the „development of Linux”, or that GNU is the name of
a collection of tools”.

As for the term „intellectual property”, that spreads confusion and
hostile bias.  See
for explanation.  I hope you will decide to reject that expression, as
I do; but in any case, don’t use it in connection with my speech.

Please do not mention non-free GNU/Linux distros (for instance,
Ubuntu) in the publicity for the event.

If you have doubts about a poster or announcement, please ask my
assistant to check it for you, not me.  Send it to

Selling Free Software, Free Society

Please sell copies of my book of essays, Free Software, Free Society,
if you can.  In the US, Canada, Spain, Italy and Japan, you can obtain
published copies of this book in English, Spanish, Italian, and
Japanese.  You don’t need to put up any money to do this.  Please talk
with about how to do it.  In the US and Canada, the
FSF will ship you these books.

Outside those four countries, please print copies of the book to sell
at the event, if you can.  The English version (230 pages) is available
in; the Spanish version
(318 pages) in

If you use ordinary copying, and avoid fancy covers and bindings, we
can sell them for two or three times the cost of copying, and they
will still be cheap enough that many people will buy them.  From the
proceeds you will first retain the cost of printing; we can divide the
gains between your organization and the FSF.

If you see any obstacle, whatever it is, don’t just give up.  Talk
with about it!  Most of the problems that might
seem difficult to you, we are already accustomed to solving.  Give us
a chance to overcome the obstacle!

At the speech:

Please put out a pad of paper for people to write down their names and
email addresses if they want to be on the FSF’s mailing list.

Changes of plans:

Don’t assume that I can still come if you change the date.  My
schedule is tight.  If you change the date by even one day, I may be
unable to come.  However, I will certainly be flexible if there is no
obstacle.  Please consult with me before making any change, and I will
see what I can do.

Scheduling other meetings:

I have agreed to give a speech for you, and if the press wants to talk
with me, I will do that for the sake of the cause.  However, if you
would like me to give additional speeches or go to additional
meetings, please ask me first.  Please ask me about *each* activity
you would like me to perform.

Many people assume that because I am traveling, I am having a
vacation–that I have no other work to do, so I can spend the whole
day speaking or meeting with people.  Some hosts even feel that they
ought to try to fill up my time as a matter of good hospitality.
Alas, it’s not that way for me.

The fact is, I have no vacations.  (Don’t feel sorry for me; idleness
is not something I wish for.)  I have to spend 6 to 8 hours *every
day* doing my usual work, which is responding to email about the GNU
Project and the Free Software Movement.  Work comes in every day for
me, and if I skip it one day, I have to catch up another day.  During
the week I usually fall behind; on weekends I try to catch up.

Traveling takes up time, so I will be extra busy during my visit.  And
it might be nice if I could do at least an hour or two of sightseeing
during the visit.  So please ask me *in advance* about *each*
additional speech, meeting, or other activity that would take time.  I
don’t mind being asked, and I may say yes, but I also may say no.

Remember that an additional speech, even if it is just a one-hour
speech, probably takes up two hours counting questions, autographs,
etc.  And then there is the travel time.


I am glad to give interviews to the press about the GNU system, but
before I do, I want to be sure they will not repeat the two common
mistakes (calling the whole system „Linux” and associating GNU or me
with „open source”).  Please explain this, and ask the journalist if
he will agree to call the system „GNU/Linux” in the article, and to
make it clear that our work is „free software” not „open source”.
Recommend reading and for
explanations of these issues.  If the journalist agrees, then I agree
to an interview.  Please have this discussion by email, and save the
messages in both directions.

Sometimes a journalist gives a response which sounds vaguely
affirmative or sympathetic but its words do not really say „yes”.
Examples are „I will do this as much as I can” and „I understand the
distinction.”  Such an answer is actually just „maybe”, so when you
receive one, please ask for clarification.  If he says that the editor
has the final decision, please respond with „Would you please consult
the editor now, and tell us a firm decision?”

Recorded Interviews for Broadcast:

It is ok to do these either before or after my speech, and they have
to be done one at a time.

Interviews Not for VideBroadcast

Please do not propose to hold these interviewd before the conference.
That order wastes my time.  So please propose to hold them AFTER the

Also please ask journalists to *see my speech* before the interview.
My speeches are not technical; they focus on precisely the sort of
philosophical questions that a journalist would probably want to
cover.  If the journalist has not attended my speech, he will probably
start by asking me to answer the same questions that I answer in the
speech.  That is a waste of time for me.

If you schedule a press conference or group interview, please *plan
the time of my speech to allow the inteview after it*.  It may be a
good idea to find out from journalists what times are good for them,
then schedule the conference, then schedule the speech before it.
This way, they will all be able to get the full picture.

It is also ok to have the interviews the day after the speech.
That is another way to have them after the speech rather than before.

Please ask each journalist to agree to make a recording of the
interview.  Written notes are not reliable, so I have decided not to
do that sort of interview any more.

It is also a good idea for the journalist to read and some of the articles
in before the interview.  Those
articles provide important background.  This is especially important
for anyone who cannot come to my speech first.

I am willing to meet with any number of journalists, but if there are
many, I can’t meet all of them individually (it would take too much
time).  So what I will do is give private interviews to 2 or maybe 3
of them, whichever ones you think are most important, and see the rest
of them as a group (i.e. in a press conference).

You and your associates can judge better than I do which journalists
and which publications I should focus on.  So I would like you to
advise me about that.  Please try to judge both the importance of the
publication and the merits (intelligence, attention to accuracy,
openness of mind, and absence of bias) of the journalist, if you can.

Recording my speech:

Please do record the speech if you can.  We are always looking for
good recordings of my speeches, both audio and video, to put on line.

The GNU Project keeps an on-line audio and video collection of speech
recordings in  If you are making an audio or
video recording of my speech, please write to in
advance for advice on how to make a recording that is good for further
use, and subsequently to arrange to install your recording on our

When you are making a recording, please *make sure* to tell me when
the tape needs to be changed.  I will pause.  Please help me help you
make the recording complete.

Recording formats:

Please make sure that your recording is not compressed with a
substantially lossy codec (unless it is an Ogg codec).  If we have to
transcode the file, starting from a lower-quality base will reduce the
quality of the result.

It is best to provide audio recordings in the original recorded sample
rate, up to 44100Hz.  Monophonic is generally adequate for speech
recordings and saves a lot of space over stereo.

For video recordings, please save the master recording, which will
probably be in miniDV format.

Please don’t transcode recordings from one format to another before
sending to us, unless they have such a high bit rate that files are
impractically large.  If you do need to encode or transcode, please
convert audio to 64Kbps mono Ogg Vorbis (or you could try Ogg Speex),
and convert video to Matroska VP8 or to Ogg Theora with video quality
set to 5 or more.  If you need advice for how to do this, please ask

Putting my speech on the net:

If you would like to put my speech on the Internet, or distribute it
in digital form, I insist on using the formats of the free software
community: Ogg Vorbis or Ogg Speex format for audio, and Matroska VP8
or Ogg Theora for video.  Please do not distribute my speech in any
other format.

Please do not ever broadcast or publish my speeches in formats that
are not good for free software.  I will not speak to make a recording
or broadcast that requires non-free software to be heard or viewed.
Don’t use RealPlayer format, or Quicktime, or Windows Media Player
format, or a patented format such as MPEG2, MPEG4, or MP3.

This requirement is very important, because if it is not followed,
viewing my speech will require people to do the exact opposite of what
I ask them to do.  The medium’s message would contradict my message.

Because this is so important, please make sure everyone who might be
involved in broadcasting the event, or who might be directly or
indirectly involved in planning such a broadcast, knows this
requirement in advance of the event.

Streaming the speech:

Streaming is another word for broadcasting.  So if you want to stream
my speech, you must use Ogg format or Matroska VP8.

If you want to do this and you have not done streaming in Ogg or VP8
before, don’t leave the matter till the last minute.  If you do that,
it will be too late.  Please try a test session two weeks before the
speech.  That way, if you encounter any problem, there will be time to
resolve it before the speech.

If you have previously done streaming using some streaming service
that you know little about, it probably uses an unacceptable format
and I won’t let you use it for my speech.  So check two weeks in
advance what format it uses.  If you find it uses some bad format,
you will have time to set up streaming properly.

Remote speeches by video connection:

I can do a speech remotely through a videoconferencing system.  This
can be done by Internet or by ISDN.  For good quality by Internet, we
need a maximum of 100msec response time for ping between your site and
where I am, and 100kbytes/sec transfer rate.

Using two or three ISDN lines gives good quality but the calls cost
money.  If I am at home, there is a facility I can use at no charge;
you would have to pay for the ISDN calls and for the facilities at
your end.  If I am somewhere else (which is true more than half the
time), then we will need to find a videoconferencing facility for me
to use; most likely you will need to pay for that.

Warning about giveways:

You may find companies offering you CD-ROMs, books, fliers or
publicity materials to give away or sell at my speech.  Please check
them before you accept them, to make sure that they don’t promote the
very thing that we are working to replace.

For instance, the CDs may contain non-free software.  Most distros of
GNU/Linux contain or suggest non-free software in addition to the free
software.  (And most of them call the system „Linux”.)  Please check
with me before you allow a CD of GNU/Linux to be distributed at the

Books about use of the GNU/Linux system and about GNU programs are
fine if they themselves are also free.  But many of them are non-free
(see  To see if a book
is free, check the license on the back of the title page.  If it uses
the GNU Free Documentation License, or the Open Publication License
version 1 without options A and B, then it is free.  If it isn’t one
of those, please show me the license and I will tell you if it is a
free license.

If companies send you publicity materials, please check with me before
giving them out at my speech.


Dacă ai ajuns aici, vei primi niște „prăjiturele”.. informează-te!

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Cookie-urile in sine nu solicita informatii cu caracter personal pentru a putea fi utilizate si, in cele mai multe cazuri, nu identifica personal utilizatorii de internet. Exista 2 categorii mari de cookie-uri: • Cookie-uri de sesiune – acestea sunt stocate temporar in dosarul de cookie-uri al browserului web pentru ca acesta sa le memoreze pana cand utilizatorul iese de pe web-siteul respectiv sau inchide fereastra browserului ( ex: in momentul logarii/delogarii pe un cont de webmail sau pe retele de socializare). • Cookie-uri Persistente – Acestea sunt stocate pe hard-drive-ul unui computer sau echipament (si in general depinde de durata de viata prestabilita pentru cookie). Cookie-urile persistente le includ si pe cele plasate de un alt website decat cel pe care il viziteaza utilizatorul la momentul respectiv – cunoscute sub numele de ‘third party cookies’ (cookieuri plasate de terti) – care pot fi folosite in mod anonim pentru a memora interesele unui utilizator, astfel incat sa fie livrata publicitate cat mai relevanta pentru utilizatori. Care sunt avantajele cookie-urilor? Un cookie contine informatii care fac legatura intre un web-browser (utilizatorul) si un web-server anume (website-ul). Daca un browser acceseaza acel web-server din nou, acesta poate citi informatia deja stocata si reactiona in consecinta. Cookie-urile asigura userilor o experienta placuta de navigare si sustin eforturile multor websiteuri pentru a oferi servicii confortabile utilizatorillor: ex – preferintele in materie de confidentialitate online, optiunile privind limba site-ului, cosuri de cumparaturi sau publicitate relevanta. Care este durata de viata a unui cookie? Cookie-urile sunt administrate de webservere. Durata de viata a unui cookie poate varia semnificativ, depinzand de scopul pentru care este plasat. Unele cookie-uri sunt folosite exclusive pentru o singura sesiune (session cookies) si nu mai sunt retinute odata de utilizatorul a parasite website-ul si unele cookie-uri sunt retinute si refolosite de fiecare data cand utilizatorul revine pe acel website (‘cookie-uri permanente‘). Cu toate aceste, cookie-urile pot fi sterse de un utilizator in orice moment prin intermediul setarilor browserului. Ce sunt cookie-urile plasate de terti? Anumite sectiuni de continut de pe unele site-uri pot fi furnizate prin intermediul unor terte parti/ furnizori (ex: news box, un video sau o reclama). Aceste terte parti pot plasa de asemenea cookie-uri prin intermediul site-ului si ele se numesc “third party cookies” pentru ca nu sunt plasate de proprietarul website-ului respectiv. Furnizorii terti trebuie sa respecte de asemenea legea in vigoare si politicile de confidentialitate ale detinatorului site-ului. Cum sunt folosite cookie-urile de catre acest site O vizita pe acest site poate plasa cookie-uri in scopuri de a se adapta in functie de fiecare site: • Cookie-uri de performanta a site-ului • Cookie-uri de analiza a vizitatorilor • Cookie-uri pentru geotargetting • Cookie-uri de inregistrare • Cookie-uri pentru publicitate • Cookie-uri ale furnizorilor de publicitate Aceste cookie-uri pot proveni de la urmatorii terti: 1. Cookie-uri de performanta Acest tip de cookie retine preferintele utilizatorului pe acest site, asa incat nu mai este nevoie de setarea lor la fiecare vizitare a site-ului. Exemple: - setarile volumului pentru video player - viteza de video streaming cu care este compatibil browserul Cookie-uri pentru analiza vizitatorilor De fiecare data cand un utilizator viziteaza acest site softul de analytics furnizat de o terta parte genereaza un cookie de analiza a utilizatorului. Acest cookie ne spune daca ati mai vizitat acest site pana acum. Browserul ne va spune daca aveti acest cookie, iar daca nu, vom genera unul. Acesta permite monitorizarea utilizatorilor unici care ne viziteaza si cat de des o fac. Atat timp cat nu sunteti inregistrat pe acest site, acest cookie nu poate fi folosit pentru a identifica persoanele fizice, ele sunt folosite doar in scop statistic. Daca sunteti inregistrat putem sti, de asemenea, detaliile pe care ni le-ati furnizat, cum ar fi adresa de e-mail si username-ul – acestea fiind supuse confidentialitatii si prevederilor din Termeni si Conditii, Politica de confidentialitate precum si prevederilor legislatiei in vigoare cu privire la protejarea datelor cu caracter personal. 2. Cookie-uri pentru geotargetting Aceste cookie-uri sunt utilizate de catre un soft care stabileste din ce tara proveniti. Este complet anonim si este folosit doar pentru a targeta continutul – chiar si atunci cand sunteti pe pagina noastra in limba romana sau in alta limba primiti aceeasi reclama. 3. Cookie-uri pentru inregistrare Atunci cand va inregistrati pe acest site, generam un cookie care ne anunta daca sunteti inregistrat sau nu. Serverele noastre folosesc aceste cookie-uri pentru a ne arata contul cu care sunteti ingregistrat si daca aveti permisiunea pentru un serviciu anume. De asemenea, ne permite sa asociem orice comentariu pe care il postati pe site-ul nostru cu username-ul dvs. Daca nu ati selectat “pastreaza-ma inregistrat”, acest cookie se va sterge automat cand veti inchide browserul sau calculatorul. 4. Cookie-uri pentru publicitate Aceste cookie-uri ne permit sa aflam daca ati vizualizat sau nu o reclama online, care este tipul acesteia si cat timp a trecut de cand ati vazut mesajul publicitar. Aceste cookie-uri le folosim si pentru a targeta publicitatea online. Putem folosi, de asemenea, cookie- uri apartinand unei terte parti, pentu o mai buna targetare a publicitatii, pentru a arata de exemplu reclame despre vacante, daca utilizatorul a vizitat recent un articol pe site despre vacante. Aceste cookie-uri sunt anonime, ele stocheaza informatii despre contentul vizualizat, nu despre utilizatori. De asemenea, setam cookie-uri anonime si prin alte site-uri pe care avem publicitate. Primindu-le, astfel, noi le putem folosi pentru a va recunoaste ca vizitator al acelui site daca ulterior veti vizita site-ul nostru, va vom putea livra publicitatea bazata pe aceasta informatie. 5. Cookie-uri ale furnizorilor de publicitate O mare parte din publicitatea pe care o gasiti pe acest site apartine tertelor parti. Unele dintre aceste parti folosesc propriile cookie-uri anonime pentru a analiza cat de multe persoane au fost expuse unui mesaj publicitar, sau pentru a vedea cate persoane au fost expuse de mai multe ori la aceeasi reclama. Companiile care genereaza aceste cookie-uri au propriile politici de confidentialitate, iar acest site nu are acces pentru a citi sau scrie aceste cookie-uri. Cookie-urile celor terte parti pot fi folosite pentru a va arata publicitatea targeta si pe alte site-uri, bazandu-se pe navigarea dvs pe acest site. 6. Alte cookie-uri ale tertelor parti Pe unele pagini, tertii pot seta propriile cookie-uri anonime, in scopul de a urmari succesul unei aplicatii, sau pentru a customiza o aplicatie. Datorita modului de utilizare, acest site nu poate accesa aceste cookie-uri, la fel cum tertele parti nu pot accesa cookie-urile detinute de acest site. De exemplu, cand distribuiti un articol folosind butonul pentru retelele sociale aflat pe acest site, acea retea sociala va inregistra activitatea dvs. Ce tip de informatii sunt stocate si accesate prin intermediul cookie-urilor? Cookie-urile pastreaza informatii intr-un fisier text de mici dimensiuni care permit unui website sa recunoasca un browser. Webserverul va recunoaste browserul pana cand cookie-ul expira sau este sters. Cookie-ul stocheaza informatii importante care imbunatatesc experienta de navigare pe Internet ( ex: setarile limbii in care se doreste accesarea unui site; pastrarea unui user logat in contul de webmail; securitatea online banking; pastrarea produselor in cosul de cumparaturi) De ce sunt cookie-urile importante pentru Internet? Cookie-urile reprezinta punctul central al functionarii eficiente a Internetului, ajutand la generarea unei experiente de navigare prietenoase si adaptata preferintelor si intereselor fiecarui utilizator. Refuzarea sau dezactivarea cookieurilor poate face unele site-uri imposibil de folosit. Refuzarea sau dezactivarea cookie-urilor nu inseamna ca nu veti mai primi publicitate online – ci doar ca aceasta nu va mai putea tine cont de preferintele si interesele dvs, evidentiate prin comportamentul de navigare. Exemple de intrebuintari importante ale cookieurilor (care nu necesita autentificarea unui utilizator prin intermediul unui cont): - Continut si servicii adaptate preferintelor utilizatorului – categorii de stiri, vreme, sport, harti, servicii publice si guvernamentale, site-uri de entertainment si servicii de travel. - Oferte adaptate pe interesele utilizatorilor – retinerea parolelor, preferintele de limba (Ex: afisarea rezultatelor cautarilor in limba Romana). - Retinerea filtrelor de protectie a copiilor privind continutul pe Internet (optiuni family mode, functii de safe search). - Limitarea frecventei de difuzare a reclamelor – limitarea numarului de afisari a unei reclame pentru un anumit utilizator pe un site. - Furnizarea de publicitate mai relevanta pentru utilizator. - Masurarea, optimizare si caracteristicile de analytics – cum ar fi confirmarea unui anumit nivel de trafic pe un website, ce tip de continut este vizualizat si modul cum un utilizator ajunge pe un website (ex prin motoare de cautare, direct, din alte website-uri etc). Website-urile deruleaza aceste analize a utilizarii lor pentru a imbunatati site-urile in beneficiul userilor. Securitate si probleme legate de confidentialitate Cookie-urile NU sunt virusi! Ele folosesc formate tip plain text. Nu sunt alcatuite din bucati de cod asa ca nu pot fi executate nici nu pot auto-rula. In consecinta, nu se pot duplica sau replica pe alte retele pentru a se rula sau replica din nou. Deoarece nu pot indeplini aceste functii, nu pot fi considerate virusi. Cookie-urile pot fi totusi folosite pentru scopuri negative. Deoarece stocheaza informatii despre preferintele si istoricul de navigare al utilizatorilor, atat pe un anume site cat si pe mai multe alte site- uri, cookieurile pot fi folosite ca o forma de Spyware. Multe produse anti-spyware sunt constiente de acest fapt si in mod constant marcheaza cookie-urile pentru a fi sterse in cadrul procedurilor de stergere/scanare anti-virus/anti-spyware. In general browserele au integrate setari de confidentialitate care furnizeaza diferite nivele de acceptare a cookieurilor, perioada de valabilitate si stergere automata dupa ce utilizatorul a vizitat un anumit site. Alte aspecte de securitate legate de cookie-uri Deoarece protectia identitatii este foarte valoroasa si reprezinta dreptul fiecarui utilizator de internet, este indicat sa se stie ce eventuale probleme pot crea cookieurile. Pentru ca prin intermediul lor se transmit in mod constant in ambele sensuri informatii intre browser si website, daca un atacator sau persoana neautorizata intervine in parcursul de transmitere a datelor, informatiile continute de cookie pot fi interceptate. Desi foarte rar, acest lucru se poate intampla daca browserul se conecteaza la server folosind o retea necriptata (ex: o retea WiFi nesecurizata). Alte atacuri bazate pe cookie implica setari gresite ale cookieurilor pe servere. Daca un website nu solicita browserului sa foloseasca doar canale criptate, atacatorii pot folosi aceasta vulnerabilitate pentru a pacali browserele in a trimite informatii prin intermediul canalelor nesecurizate. Atacatorii utilizeaza apoi informatiile in scopuri de a accesa neautorizat anumite site-uri. Este foarte important sa fiti atenti in alegerea metodei celei mai potrivite de protectie a informatiilor personale. Sfaturi pentru o navigare sigura si responsabila, bazata pe cookies. Datorita flexibilitatii lor si a faptului ca majoritatea dintre cele mai vizitate site-uri si cele mai mari folosesc cookie-uri, acestea sunt aproape inevitabile. Dezactivarea cookie-urilor nu va permite accesul utilizatorului pe site-urile cele mai raspandite si utilizate printre care Youtube, Gmail, Yahoo si altele. Iata cateva sfaturi care va pot asigura ca nevigati fara griji insa cu ajutorul cookieurilor: • Particularizati-va setarile browserului in ceea ce priveste cookie-urile pentru a reflecta un nivel confortabil pentru voi al securitatii utilizarii cookie-urilor. • Daca nu va deranjeaza cookie-urile si sunteti singura persoana care utilizaeaza computerul, puteti seta termene lunigi de expirare pentru stocarea istoricului de navigare si al datelor personale de acces. • Daca impartiti accesul la calculator, puteti lua in considerare setarea browserului pentru a sterge datele individuale de navigare de fiecare data cand inchideti browserul. Aceasta este o varianta de a accesa site-urile care plaseaza cookieuri si de a sterge orice informatie de vizitare la inchiderea sesiunii navigare. • Instalati-va si updatati-va constant aplicatii antispyware. Multe dintre aplicatiile de detectare si prevenire a spyware-ului includ detectarea atacurilor pe site-uri. Astfel, impiedica browserul de la a accesa website-uri care ar putea sa exploateze vulnerabilitatile browserului sau sa descarce software periculos. Asigurati-va ca aveti browserul mereu updatat. Multe dintre atacurile bazate pe cookies se realizeaza exploatand punctele slabe ale versiunilor vechi ale browserelor. Cookie-urile sunt pretutindeni si nu pot fi evitate daca doriti sa va bucurati de acces pe cele mai bune si cele mai mari site-uri de pe Internet – locale sau internationale. Cu o intelegere clara a modului lor de operare si a beneficiilor pe care le aduc, puteti lua masurile necesare de securitate astel incat sa puteti naviga cu incredere pe internet. Cum pot opri cookie-urile? Dezactivarea si refuzul de a primi cookie-uri pot face anumite site-uri impracticabile sau dificil de vizitat si folosit. De asemenea, refuzul de a accepta cookie-uri nu inseamna ca nu veti mai primi/vedea publicitate online. Este posibila setarea din browser pentru ca aceste cookie-uri sa nu mai fie acceptate sau poti seta browserul sa accepte cookie-uri de la un site anume. Dar, de exemplu, daca nu esti inregistat folosind cookie-urile, nu vei putea lasa comentarii. Toate browserele moderne ofera posibilitatea de a schimba setarile cookie-urilor. Aceste setari se gasesc de regula in “optiuni” sau in meniul de “preferinte” al browserului tau. Pentru a intelege aceste setari, urmatoarele linkuri pot fi folositoare, altfel puteti folosi optiunea “ajutor” a browserului pentru mai multe detalii: Cookie settings in Internet Explorer- Cookie settings in Firefox- Cookie settings in Chrome- Cookie settings in Safari- Pentru setarile cookie-urilor generate de terti, puteti consulta si site-ul: Linkuri utile Daca doriti sa afli mai multe infromatii despre cookie-uri si la ce sunt utilizate, recomandam urmatoarele linkuri: Microsoft Cookies guide- All About Cookies- IAB Romania pune la dispozitie urmatorul site pentru a oferi mai multe informatii privind confidentialitatea legata de publicitatea online: Pentru mai multe detalii legate de probleme de confidentialitate, puteti accesa si urmatoarele linkuri: • OUG 13/2012 pentru modificarea si completarea Legii nr. 506/2004 privind prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal si protectia vietii private in sectorul comunicatiilor electronice- • • Cookies – what are they and how do they work?- •